Acid: Substance that describes the taste produced by dilute and aqueous solutions.
Acidity level: Chemical parameter of quality which has nothing to do with the taste or the aroma of the oil.
Aftertaste: Collection of sensations which is perceived once the oil has disappeared from the mouth.
Almazara: Mill of olive oil, place ready for obtaining the oil of the olive.
Almond flavor: Distinctive taste of the almond, characteristic of sweet olives and subdued aromas.
Arbequina: Variety of an olive cultivated in Catalunia, Andalucia and Aragon (Spain).
Aroma: Natural perfume that the oil is dispensing.
Astringent: Oil with a bitter and tard taste.
“Banco”: Pyramid-shaped stairs of six or seven steps utilized to collect the olives from highest branches.
Bitter: Taste that is obtained by the green olives when they have been milled together with leaves and stems.
Cold extraction: Obtainment of the virgin olive oil maintaining the temperature under 27º C during the entire process.
Continuous system: Set of operations to obtain the virgin oil, which includes the milling, the beating, the settling and the centrifugation.
Coupage: Oil obtained from a mixture of a diverse variety of olives.
Crude: Oil that has not been refined.
Dull: Oil whose characteristics are diminished.
“Descofinar”: To pull the pulp from the basket with a sudden and swift movement once the pressing has been realized.
Drupa: The name that the Romans gave to the fruit of the olive tree, the olive.
“Envero”: Period in which the olive is maturing.
Extra virgin: The oil with the highest quality, which is the natural juice of the olive.
(To) Filter: Pass the oil through a filter to eliminate its impurities.
Flower of the oil (Oleum viride): The name that, in many places in Spain, is given to the extra virgin oil obtained during the first cold extraction.
Fruity: Collection of sensations which remind of the taste and smell of a healthy olive.
“Fuelle”: Basin in which the olives are collected.
“Galga”: Rotating stone of the oil mill.
Grassy: Taste of the oil that reminds of recently mowed grass.
(To) Grease: To spread oil on something.
“Green leaves”: Taste of the oil obtained from very immature olives.
Gustatory analysis: Analysis that is produced in the mouth. The gustatory sensations that the olive oil is producing in the mouth is assessed by intensity, taste and quality.
Harmonious: Oil with a taste and an aroma with a pleasant sensation.
Harmonious: Oil with a taste and an aroma with a pleasant sensation.
“Lampante”: Name derived from Italian with which we refer to glossy oil.
Marc: The residual of the olive that has been milled and pressed.
Mediterranean diet: Alimentary model that is characteristic for the countries of the Mediterranean basin, in which olive oil is a fundamental component.
Mesh: Element similar to a net which in the moment of the harvest spreads across the floor that surrounds the olive tree in order to collect the olives that fall from the tree.
Milling: Milling of the fruit. First process that the olive is subjected to and on which the final quality of the product depends.
Monovarietal (single-variety): Virgin olive oil that is elaborated from only one single variety of olive.
Millstone: Part of the traditional mill that serves to grind the olives, and therefore to extract the oil from its pulp.
“Obradura”: That what is squeezed in the press of an oil mill.
Oleaceas: Family of the dicotyledonous plants to which the olive tree belongs.
Oleic acid: Greasy acid that grands a bigger stability to the olive oil in the elevated temperatures that this product endures during its cooking.
Oleoteca: Establishment that is specialized in olive oil.
Oil: Natural juice of an olive.
Olive: Fruit of the olive tree, from which olive oil is obtained
Olive cultivation (Olivicultura): The study of cultivating the olive tree.
Olive grove: A plantation of olives.
Olfactory analysis: Analysis that values the aromatic sensations by its intensity, which are classified into pleasant-positives and unpleasant-negatives.
Organic: The said oil complies with the EU regulations UE2092/1991, about organic production and their indication in the agricultural products and foodstuffs.
Organoleptic analysis: Analysis consisting in determining if the virgin oil has a fruity median over 0º, and a median of defects inferior to 3,5º.
“Parar”: To fill the baskets of the pulp of the olives and to put them one over another for pressing.
“Pértiga”: Long stick used to beat the olive tree.
Picking: To take the olive directly from the tree, sliding the hands over the branches. It is the least harmful technique to the tree.
Picual: Variety of an olive tree, originated in Andalucia.
Polyphenols: Natural preservatives of the extra virgin olive oil.
Pond: Pond where the scraps are stopped in the mills.
Press: Device destined to apply pressure to the pulp of the olives in order to extract the oil.
Pulp of the olive: Product which results from milling the flesh of the olive, with addition or not, of other alimentary products.
(To) Rack: To pass the oil from one container to another.
Rancid: Taste that is acquired by an oil in the process of oxidation.
“Rasqueta”: Object that is similar to a plastic comb which is used to recollect the olives from the branches without injuring the tree.
Regulatory Council: Official institution responsible for the management of the protection of designations of origin, which was founded to control and guarantee the quality of the olives which are produced and the marketing of them.
Rojal: Variety of an olive tree, cultivated in the zone of Catalonia and Alicante (Spain).
Roller (“Rulo”): Stone in shape of a cone which rotates, attached to an axis in the mills.
Rough: Oral sensation that some olive oils leave when being sampled.
Sensory analysis: Analysis or tests that are being made during the tasting, they are conducted in the mouth, together with the palate according to Md and Mf quality criteria.
Sour: Olfactory-gustatory sensation, in which predominate the fermented acids.
Settling: Natural separation of the oil in the interior of the batch, as a consequence of the difference between the density of water and oil.
Spicy: Organoleptic attribute, gustatory sensation of tingling, characteristic of the oil obtained at the beginning of the campaign.
Sweet: Pleasant taste of the oil.
Table olive: Olive prepared for direct consumption.
Tactile analysis: Technique to consider if an oil is defective, depending if a certain consistency presents or an aqueous tactile sensation.
Tank: Deposit, usually made of stainless steel, where the extra virgin olive oil is stored.
Tasting: Operation that consists in perceiving, analyzing and valuing the organoleptic properties of the oil.
Taster: Person that is duly trained and who has the difficulty of detecting the distinctive characteristics of the olive or the olive oil.
Tasting panel: Joint venture of subjects or judges that have been especially selected and trained to perform, under controlled conditions, a sensory analysis of the product.
“Tendal” (harvesting net): Part, formerly made with bags and today with plastic material, which serves to recollect the olives from the tree.
“Terrón”: Residual of the olive after being pressed.
Traditional system: Set of operations to obtain the virgin oil, which includes the milling, the beating, the pressing and the settling.
Trituracion: Action to crush the olives in the mill.
“Trujal”: Olive oil mill (press).
Visual analysis: Technique which analyses the aspect and color of the virgin olive oil.
Virgin olive oil: Oil obtained only by mechanical processes or by other physical procedures that do not produce an alteration of the oil, subjecting it only to the washing, the settling, the centrifugation and the filtering.
“Varear”: Bring down the olives from the tree with a stick.
Vibrator: Machine used to make the olives fall from the tree.
Virgin: Olive oil extracted by mechanical processes.
(to) whip: To hit the branches of the olive tree to make the olives fall onto the harvesting net.
Zafra: Depósito de hojalata para conservar el aceite
*Definitions extracted from: MAYORAL QUINTANA, JOSEP RAMÓN. El olivo, la aceituna y el aceite. Ed. Fonoll S.L.